Our investigation showed that Zn contained many unique properties in human, especially males. The antioxidant quality is one of them.
Also, the increased reactive oxygen species levels in the seminal plasma of men who are both infertile and smokers influence the Zn content of seminal plasma in a Can taking zinc increase sperm that physiology of spermatozoa can be affected as well.
Moreover, Zn acts as a toxic repercussionagainst heavy metals and cigarette inflammatory agents. It plays a role in epithelial integrity, showing that Zn is essential for maintaining the lining of the reproductive organs and may have a regulative role in the progress of capacitation and acrosome reaction.
In contrast, Zn deficiency impedes spermatogenesis and is a reason for sperm abnormalities and has a negative effect on serum testosterone concentration. Based on these findings, Zn microelement is very essential for male fertility. It could be considered as a nutrient marker with many potentials in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of male infertility. Sexual accessory glands secrete in the seminal plasma containing some elements that protect spermatozoa at the time of ejaculation 1.
Zn is a plentiful microelement in the body and it is found in nuts, legumes 3seafood e. Oystersfortified cereals, cremini mushrooms, low-fat yogurt 4 and animal proteins, such as meat, fish and milk. Some reports showed that consumption of these natural foods can enhance germinal cell proliferation 5and poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for the low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility 6.
Dietary Zn deficiency less than 5 ppm impairs reproduction in males and females. Zn has many important functions in the spermatozoa physiology, including effects on lipid flexibility and sperm membrane stabilization It also has a regulated role in capacitation and the acrosome reaction of Can taking zinc increase sperm and is essential for conception and embryonic implantation Proteins containing Zn and selenium in mammalian spermatozoa are Can taking zinc increase sperm in modulating the amount of reactive oxygen species ROS ; therefore, it is interesting to investigate whether balanced amounts of Zn and other Can taking zinc increase sperm that are added to the semen diluent would moderate the deleterious effects of ROS on chromatin structure In our previous study, it was demonstrated that an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility is poor Zn nutrition 6.
But in this review, the focus was on the various roles of Zn in male health, reproductive system, quality and function of sperm, as well as the effects of epigenetic factors on Zn and finally the molecular and cellular mechanisms of Zn.
The nearby organs include prostate, liver, the gastrointestinal tract; kidney, skin, lung, adrenals, brain, heart, eyes and pancreas contain estimable concentrations of Zn.
Blood tests for Zn deficiency are inaccurate because majority of Zn is cumulative inside cells and is not free in the blood.
Assisting immune function, patronage of healthy cell growth, having a role in preserving prostate health, sexual health and testosterone hormone levels are typical examples. It has been demonstrated that Zn plays a significant role in reproductive functions 14 Hosseinzadeh Colager et al.
The level of Zn in fertile men was There are many reports that showed reduction or increase in consumption of Zn which let to overindulge vis-a-vis deficiency damages in many of the human organs Table 1. For example, Zn deficiency is correlated with reduction in testis volume, a decrease in testicular weight, hypogonadism, gonadal dysfunction, inadequate development of secondary sex specifications in human, shrinkage of seminiferous tubules, the failure of spermatogenesis, male gonad growth and hypogonadism 8.
And so, there are many reports for Zn-physiological roles in human Table 2including its role in gonads- and some enzyme-functions, treatments of some diseases, and better function of apoptosis and immune systems.
Some of these Zn-physiological roles Can taking zinc increase sperm indicated below. Zn contains many roles in the immune systems Table 3. Zn has a role in almost all aspects of inherent immunity and compatibility, so Zn deficiency may influence weakening of immune system and reproductive system.
Zn is effective in various mechanisms, including DNA replication, RNA transcription, proliferation, and differentiation and activation of immune cells in many organs of the body 910 The innate as well as the specific parts of the immune system are influenced by Zn. The effects of Zn are multifaceted.
Zn can induce adhesion of myelomonocytic cells to the endothelium, while Zn chelation diminishes cell recruitment. Thus, Zn is essential, even in the earliest stages of an immune response.
At the molecular level, Zn is required for the interaction between the p58 killer cell inhibitory receptor on NK cells and major histocompatibility complex MHC class I molecules, mainly human leukocyte antigen C, on target cells, resulting in the inhibition of the Can taking zinc increase sperm activity 8. Interestingly, Zn is needed to maintain the normal function of natural killer cells, and Zn deficiency may result in non-specific killing activity and functional loss.
In addition to effects of upstream signaling molecules, Zn influences gene expression by structural stabilization and functional regulation of various immunological-relevant transcription factors as summarized earlier Zn corrects these adverse effects of cadmium on the immune system and biochemical processes as a component of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase and protects the testicular endothelium and sperm cell membranes Zn exists at high levels in the testis of vertebrates which are comparable to liver and kidney.
Moreover, there are certain reports that manifest Zn can reduce testis injury by stresses such as Can taking zinc increase sperm metals, fluoride, and heat Zn is assembled in the testis during early spermatogenesis and may play a main role in the adjustment of the spermatogonial reproduction and in the meiosis of germ cells Mostly, Zn assembles in germ cells and its concentration in testis increments during spermatogenesis.
Some researchers have witnessed that Zn is needed for the normal functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis.
Because of the important role of Zn in male reproductive potential, it is paramount to recognize that andrological variations which are most sensitive to Zn depletion.
An evaluation of those variables in clinical cases of possible Zn deficiency would accelerate treatment. Zn influences male fertility in several different ways. Low Zn levels have a negative effect on serum testosterone concentration Thyroid hormones have several important roles in the body including metabolism, development and even body temperature.
Zn helps the body maintain proper thyroid function by producing hormones in the brain called thyroid-releasing hormones. Whenever men are low in Zn, they may fail to produce enough of these hormones.
That can also affect testosterone levels 4. Seminal Zn is considered as an indicator of prostatic function; however, the function of Zn in seminal plasma and semen is unknown. Most Zn secreted from the prostate in humans seems to target the proteins secreted from seminal vesicle.
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Other research shows that the Zn and albumin secreted from the prostate constitute a complex that covers the sperm and thereby protects the cells Zn is situated primarily in the Leydig cells, the late type B spermatogonia, and the spermatids. And also is vital for the production and secretion of testosterone from the Can taking zinc increase sperm cells. Zn in human semen seems to play an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa. On the other hand, there is remarkable evidence that Zn deficiency causes primary testicular failure, lessens function of the luteinizing hormone receptor, lessens steroid synthesis and Leydig cell damage due to oxidative stress The prostate compared to other tissues and body fluids has high concentration of Zn.
Actually, Zn is a marker of prostatic function. Its other roles are regulation of the functions of spermatozoa, acting as a co-factor for most enzymatic reactions, and helping in preservation of sperm motility Can taking zinc increase sperm as a downward molecular weight complex with citrate or bound to glycoproteins of the sperm vesicles is discharged from the prostate demonstrating that biologic Zn therapy has a positive Can taking zinc increase sperm on sperm motility and the use of biologic Zn supplementation was an efficient method for the treatment of infertile males with chronic prostatitis Zn oxide nanoparticles have bactericidal effects on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and are also effective against spores which are resistant to high temperature and high pressure 28 Prostatic Zn may have antibacterial activity because trichomonas vaginalis is easily killed at concentrations of Zn that occur in the prostatic fluid of healthy men Furthermore, Zn has antibacterial activity and antilipid peroxidation properties that maintain sperm membrane stability and protect the testis against the degenerative changes Evidence suggests that seminal Zn has an important role in the physiologic functions of the sperm and that its reduced levels result in low seminal quality and subsequent chances of fertilization 6.
Zn is known to be essential for sexual maturity and onset of estrus. Zn plays a role in epithelial integrity, showing that Zn is essential for maintaining the lining of the reproductive organs 6. Furthermore, it has an important role in stabilizing the cell membrane and nuclear chromatin of spermatozoa in seminal plasma.
It may have a regulative role in the progress of capacitation and acrosome reaction. The Zn concentration in human seminal plasma is higher than in other tissues Zn has been shown to be vital for spermatogenesis. It plays a significant role in testis development and sperm physiologic functions 6.
Zn contains a variety of roles in the spermatogenesis phases Table 4. For example, in the initiation of spermatogenesis, Zn is important in participation of ribonuclease activities that is highly active during mitosis of spermatogonia and meiosis of spermatocytes.