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Slut-shaming, the public exposure and shaming of individuals for their perceived or actual sexual behavior, is rife on the Internet; it primarily affects women, and it too often has tragic outcomes. Slut-shaming is not new, but a form of cultural suppression of female sexuality that has been practiced since antiquity. In this paper, I historicize this phenomenon, by comparing and contrasting cases of slut-shaming from the Roman Republic with recent cases on the Internet, and I maintain that the focus of this slut-shaming, namely sexual virtue, has remained the same over time, but that the unregulated nature of the Internet has increased its scope and impact.

A central contention of this paper is that women have been complicit in this slut-shaming; they have shamed other women for their sexual behavior, and have done so because it conferred social benefits on them. We will see that men and women have used the Internet to perpetuate and maintain the cultural suppression of female sexuality, and expose women to increased scrutiny over their sexual behavior.

Shortly thereafter, she committed suicide. The identity of the individual s who shared the video is not in the public domain, but it was plausibly the individual s involved in the Trans slut discipline of the video [ 5 ]. This was an act of slut-shaming and it had a tragic outcome, an outcome echoed in many contemporary cases of Internet slut-shaming [ 6 ]. Slut-shaming promotes sexual virtue, namely conformance to normative sexual behaviors, and supports the cultural suppression of female sexuality, which has precedents throughout history [ 9 ].

Reports indicate that slut-shaming is increasingly prevalent on the Internet [ 11 ], and this paper provides a historical lens on this phenomenon. How recent is this phenomenon, what impact has the Internet had on it, and what role might women play Trans slut discipline it?

Tanenbaum, author of popular feminist critiques of slut-shaming and female competition, has recently published a volume on slut-shaming on the Internet, entitled I am not a slut: Slut-shaming in the age of the Trans slut discipline [ 12 ].

This volume is commendable but it does not historicize slut-shaming adequately, nor indicate the longevity of the phenomenon. I reveal how the process of slut-shaming injured women in Rome and how it continues to do so today. As Richlin and others have shown, societal processes that injured women in antiquity, including body shaming, human trafficking and involuntary sex work, continue to thrive to this day [ 14 ].

The Roman Republic is a useful space for historicising the slut-shaming of women. Female sexual virtue Trans slut discipline shame was an important part of Republican discourse; a veritable wealth of ancient sources attest to this. Themes and images of sexual virtue, violence and shame were ubiquitous in elite and popular literature e.

This discourse affected both women and girls [ 16 ]. As Trans slut discipline will see, slut-shaming was as alive in the Roman Republic as it is now on the Internet.

This was not a uniquely Roman or Republican phenomenon; many other ancient cultures include Trans slut discipline phenomena [ 18 ].

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The limited focus of this paper is designed to provoke a broader conversation on slut-shaming in antiquity. Essentially, ancient sources provide us with veiled representations of Roman women, making it difficult to recover their real history [ 19 ].

We should not see these strategies as panacean, but, rather, as a methodology for critically engaging with the lives of Roman women.

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So-warned and so-armed, I will grapple with some of the ancient sources on Roman slut-shaming. In this paper, I provide some background on female sexual virtue and shame in the Roman Republic, and then compare and contrast three cases of slut-shaming from the Republic with Trans slut discipline from the Internet.

The Republican cases include: The Internet cases include: I contend that, within a number of the cases examined, women have been complicit in the acts of shaming, which is in keeping with findings in other research on female complicity in the patriarchy [ 26 ] and female intrasexual competition [ 27 ].

I propose that their complicity conferred social benefits upon them, namely Trans slut discipline resource control and sexual privilege [ 28 ]. Previous research on gender and the Internet has often focused on utopian or dystopian models where Internet technologies are either liberating utopian or damaging dystopian for women [ 29 ]. What form did slut-shaming take in the Roman Republic?

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To answer this question, we must first understand the limits placed on female sexual behavior in the Republic. The male control of female sexuality was a central component of Roman ideology; women of the Roman Republic were typically subject to the authority of their father or husband or legal guardian.

Prostitution itself was not illegal, but great shame was attached to the role of prostitute both male and female. Women who engaged in such activity could face serious consequences, including exile or death, Trans slut discipline we shall see.

Needless to say, there was a sexual double standard; men were able to engage in such activity with some limits [ 35 ]. We shall trace some literary and funerary examples of these cultural conventions and then move to our three historical case studies.

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Female sexual virtue was wrapped up in Roman narratives about identity and religion. The aetiology of the Roman Republic itself was linked to the rape of the sexually virtuous Lucretia and her subsequent suicide [ 36 ], while the Vestal Virgins, their sexual virtue, and their sexual misconduct were linked with the health of Rome [ 37 ].

Moreover, the origins of the cult of Pudicitia Trans slut discipline, deified sexual virtue, was linked with public competition for sexual virtue by married women Trans slut discipline 38 ].

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When Roman women, fictional or otherwise, transgressed the boundaries of normative sexual behavior, they entered a dangerous space where they risked punishment and censure [ 39 ]. Themes of sexual virtue and shame exist throughout some of Trans slut discipline earliest extant Republican texts, including the famous comedies of Plautus and Terence third and second century BCE [ 40 ].

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Such themes can also be found in the fragmentary satires of Gaius Lucilius and the mimes of Decimus Laberius second and first century BCE [ 41 ]. These lines immediately conjure up the untrammeled invective directed at women on the Internet.

In these examples, Lucilius Trans slut discipline Laberius certainly use slut-shaming as part of their literary palette as did Plautus and Terencealthough we must keep in mind that this is not necessarily indicative of the lives or experiences of real women per sebut of elite and popular cultures that were preoccupied with such themes and images.

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Several Republican funerary epitaphs circa second to first century BCE for women indicate the ideological importance of perceived sexual virtue e. These epitaphs cut across class: Aurelia and Albia were freed slaves, while Claudia and Sempronia were conceivably members of the elite Claudian and Sempronian families.

Furthermore, two extant funeral eulogies for elite women from circa first century BCE, the laudatio Murdiae Trans slut discipline and the famed laudatio Turiae ILSpaint pictures of devoted and sexually virtuous wives Murdia has modesty and sexual virtue, modestia and pudicitiaand the addressee of the laudatio Turiae has sexual virtue, pudicitia [ 46 ].

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Clearly, Roman families elite and otherwise wished to publicly advertise the sexual virtue of their women [ 47 ]. These examples have shown how prevalent themes of sexual virtue and shame were in the literary and funerary culture s of the Roman Republic. But how did women experience slut-shaming? We turn Trans slut discipline to our three case studies of historical slut-shaming; this will illuminate some of the forms of slut-shaming that occurred in the lives of women.

A multitude of male Roman authors voiced concern over female sexuality and actively shamed historical women for their sexual behavior [ 48 ]; one in particular is well known, namely Marcus Tullius Cicero. Cicero was an elite member of the political class in Rome in the first c. In his Pro Caelioa speech delivered at a public trial in 56 BCE, Cicero denounces unmarried women who behaved like Trans slut discipline.

Notably, his characterization of such a woman is the inverse of the characterization of the women on the funerary epitaphs and eulogies we saw earlier.

In short, Cicero was slut-shaming [ 50 ]. Clodia had accused Trans slut discipline Caelius Rufus, her former lover, of attempted poisoning, which resulted in his being taken to trial. As far as we are aware, Clodia disappears from public life after this trial; this public slut-shaming had a profound impact on her social life [ 52 ].

As a result of these four Roman defeats, there was a substantial reduction in the male citizen population [ 54 ]. The social impact of the death of male citizens and troop mobilization cannot be overstated [ 56 ].

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I will focus now on two examples of this regulation. Circa BCE, after the crisis of Cannae and at the behest of the Senate, Roman married women chose from amongst themselves a virtuous candidate to dedicate a statue of the goddess Venus Verticordia [ 59 ]. The virtuous candidate was Sulpicia, daughter of the patrician Servius Sulpicius Paterculus and wife of the distinguished military hero, Quintus Fulvius Flaccus.

The Roman author Valerius Trans slut discipline indicates that Sulpicia was selected for her strict adherence to the public display of sexual virtue [ 60 ]. The statue of Venus Verticordia was a religious image meant to generate sexual virtue, just as Sulpicia herself was chosen as a living image of such virtue [ 65 ].

Sulpicia, an elite Roman woman, was selected by her peers to promote sexual virtue via a religious rite; in doing so, she gained status, and was immortalized as a paragon of sexual virtue. Hallett has shown that Valerius is polyvocal in his characterization of Sulpicia here: Essentially, Valerius shames one Sulpicia by praising another. In a somewhat similar fashion, the married women in this case were, broadly speaking, praising the sexual virtue of one of their number, while simultaneously slut-shaming those who did not fit her example Trans slut discipline.

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In this event, women and Valerius were promoting normative sexual behaviors, and suppressing non-conventional sexual behaviors. In BCE, amidst religious turmoil in Rome, a group of married Trans slut discipline were put on public trial for sexual misconduct. Livy, the Roman historian, indicates that this trial was managed by state religious officials, the plebeian aediles, Trans slut discipline that it resulted in the exile of some of those being tried.

This public trial and exile was highly unusual; it was, however, occurring in unusual times [ 68 ]. As noted earlier, women were traditionally subject to the authority of their father or husband or legal guardian [ 69 ].

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The war and the resulting death or absence of male relatives, however, had led to many women becoming legally autonomous.

The issue of whether the charges related to actual practice is immaterial here; the state saw fit to conduct a public trial that shamed and punished women for their perceived non-conformance to normative sexual behaviors. Trans slut discipline these three historical cases, men and women used the legal and religious apparatus of Rome to publicly shame women for their sexual behavior.

The cultural suppression of female sexuality was mediated here by the slut-shaming of women in public spaces, and the focus of this slut-shaming was female sexual virtue; women were either censured or praised for their conformance to normative sexual behaviors.

The themes of sexual virtue and shame we saw in the literary and funerary culture Trans slut discipline the Republic are omnipresent here; such themes were firmly entangled with power, status, politics and religion in Rome. We cannot know with certainty how Roman women themselves responded to this slut-shaming, or how it made them feel; Trans slut discipline contemporaneous texts authored by women exist that refer to such events.

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We do know that at least two Vestals from the third century BCE, accused of sexual misconduct, committed suicide; but theirs were exceptional cases, as Vestals they were already facing ritual execution by live burial according to religious custom [ 74 ].

What about ordinary women? It is possible that men were legally allowed to kill their wives if they were found to have committed sexual misconduct; this appears to have been the case in the domestic executions of women following the suppression of the Bacchanalia in BCE [ 75 ]. If this was so, women Trans slut discipline have chosen suicide Trans slut discipline this sentence.

If we consider these factors, along with the cultural preoccupation with female sexual virtue, and the impact slut-shaming had on Clodia case dismissal and withdrawal from public life and the matrons of BCE exilewe can presume that slut-shaming had profoundly damaging psychological and social effects on Roman women.

We turn now to instances of this same phenomenon Trans slut discipline the Internet. Slut-shaming is a growing issue on the Internet [ 76 ], and women are the predominant targets [ 77 ].


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